|Biographical detail : ||Sultan of Malaca, Sumatra, from 1488 to 1511.
Malaca was an important centre of Southeast Asia because of its location on the Malay Peninsula. When Mahmud Shah inherited the throne, the Portuguese were trying to establish their empire there. In 1511 they succeeded in capturing Malaca under the leadership of Alfanso de Albuquerque.
Mahmud Shah then established his kingdom at Johore, which proved a rival to Malaca as a trading centre. He made his capital at Bintang, south east of modern Singapore. The Portuguese were afraid of his growing power and forced him to abandon his capital in 1526. But his successors made Johore a powerful centre of trade and commerce and ruled there till 19th century.