|Biographical detail : ||Ottoman Sultan
Selim I, son of Bayezid II, ruled from 1512 to 1520 and extended his empire to Syria, Hejaz and Egypt and eliminated all his rivals. He then turned towards Iran, where Ismail I, founder of the Saffavi dynasty, was ruling.
Selim subdued the revolt in Anatolia by the Kizilbash (Turkish followers of Ismail) and defeated Ismail in 1514. Then he annexed the Kurdish principalities. He also subjugated the Mamluks and defeated them in 1516 and again in 1517, thus bringing Syria, Egypt and Palestine under Ottoman rule. He annexed Armenia, and conquered Hungary twice.
The Sharif of Makkah presented Selim I the keys to the holy city and thus acknowledged him the Caliph of the Muslim world. His son Sulaiman succeeded him. The Magnificent. Khalifa Multawakil 111 ceded the right of the Caliph, Amir-ul-Mominin.