|Biographical detail : ||Ottoman Sultan who crafted the distinctive institutions of the empire, which reached the fullest extent of its power during his reign.
Suleiman’s first military moves were against Belgrade, which he captured in 1521. Rhodes was his second target. In 1526 he took Hungary and launched the famous seize of Vienna in 1529, which he conquered the same year. Then he subdued Charles V in 1532. In 1534 he took Tabriz and Baghdad, Corfu, Moldavia were occupied in 1537. Thus his empire reached its apex.
Under Suleiman I, the Shariah received a more exalted status and legal expert (the qadis) dispensed justice in the courts, their consultants (muftis) interpreted the law, and the teachers in the madrasahs became an official government corps thus created a moral and religious link between the sultan and his subjects. This was especially valuable in the Arab provinces, where the partnership between the state and the ulama helped people to accept Turkish rule.
Suleiman I had granted European traders diplomatic immunity under the treaty known as Capitulations that meant that Europeans traders living in Ottoman territory were not required to observe the law of the land. But it was clear later on that these Capitulations were weakening Ottoman sovereignty.
Suleiman I under whose rule the empire reached the limits of its expansion, Istanbul enjoyed a cultural renaissance, which was chiefly characterised by superb architecture, notably that of the court architect Sinan Pasha. However after his marriage with a `Russian' girl Roxeliana, the groundwork was laid for two situations – Harem influence and the elevation of the favourites – which were to prove disastrous for the empire in later centuries.
Suleiman I, the only son of Selim I and the 10th Ottoman Sultan, was well known as al-Qanuni (the Lawgiver) in the Islamic world and Suleiman `the Magnificent’ by the Western historians.