|Biographical detail : ||A Persian prose writer.
He went to Berlin in 1922 and translated number of German works into Persian.
He was arrested in 1937 for his socialistic views and while in prison wrote Panjah Wa Si (the fifty-three) After world war 11 he visited Uzbekistan and wrote an account of it in Uzbakta.
After the fall of Mosaddeq the Iranian Prime Minister in 1954, he had to leave Iran and became Professor in East Germany.
He authored Chamadan, Chashm hayash and some works in German namely The Struggle of Iran, The History and Development of Modern Persian Literature.
He briefly returned to Iran after the revolution in 1979, but returned to his job in Germany.